The history of the University of Medicine (1) began with the establishment of the Government Medical School in Myanmar in 1907 at the premises of the old Rangoon General Hospital, and the introduction of a course in medical sciences. It was a four-year medical course known as Licentiate in Medical Practice (L.M.P.) course, and the successful candidate was offered a certificate of license for medical practice. In 1923-24, the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MB, B.S.) course was introduced at the old Rangoon College building at the site of the present Neurology Department of the Yangon General Hospital. The foundation stone of the Medical College building, the present main building of the University of Medicine (1) at Myomakyaung Road was laid by Sir Hercourt Butler on the 2nd February 1927, and the classes were transferred to the new building in 1929.
The Medical College became a constituent College under the University of Rangoon in 1930 and was placed under the Board of Administration, on which the Vice-chancellor of the University of Rangoon and the Inspector General of Civil Hospitals served as Chairman and Vice-chairman respectively. Academic matters and general administration were attended to by the principal with the help of the Medical College Council (Academic Body). In 1937 the medical {MB, B.S. (Rgn)} degree conferred by the University of Rangoon gained recognition of the General Medical Council of Great Britain.
During the Second World War, from 1942 – 1945, there was a temporary suspension of the MB, B.S. course. A modified course was conducted instead; on the successful completion, the Licentiate of the State Medical Board (L.S.M.B) was conferred. After the war, when all the constituent colleges became Faculties under the reconstituted Rangoon University, the Medical College became the Faculty of Medicine. The Faculty Head was appointed as the Dean of the Faculty of Medicine.
In May 1962, the University Act was abolished and the Faculty of Medicine as part of the University of Rangoon came under the Administrative Committee of the Education Ministry of the Revolutionary Government. The new University Education Act was promulgated on the 29th May 1964 and through this Act were established the professional institutes; one of which was Institutes of Medicine with the Rector as Head of each Medical Institute. In the same year, the postgraduate courses were introduced.
In October 1973, the Medical Institutes were transferred from the Ministry of Education to the Ministry of Health. All postgraduate courses were placed directly under the control of Rector, Institute of Medicine (1) in December 1984.

Principals Of Medical College, Rangon University

1 Professor (Lt. Col.) T F Owens IMS 1930 – 1931
2 Professor (Lt. Col.) L A H Lack MB.ChB, IMS MB.ChB, IMS 1931 – 1933
3 Professor (Lt. Col.) R V Morrison MD, FRCP (Edin), IMS 1933 – 1938
4 Professor (Lt. Col.) R H Malone MD, DPH, IMS 1938 – 1939
5 Professor (Major) G M Irvine MD, LMFRCS (Edin), IMS 1939 – 1941

Deans Of Faculty Of Medicine, Rangoon University

1 Dr. W. Burridge 1946 – 1947
2 Professor Min Sein MB (Cal) FRCP (Edin) 1947 – 1948
3 Professor Ba Than MB (Cal) FRCS 1948 – 1949
4 Professor Min Sein MB (Cal) FRCP (Edin) 1949 – 1951
5 Professor Ba Than MB (Cal) FRCS 1951 – 1953
6 Professor Min Sein MB (Cal) FRCP (Edin) 1953 – 1955
7 Professor Ba Than MB (Cal) FRCS 1955 – 1957
8 Professor Min Sein MB (Cal) FRCP (Edin) 1957 – 1959
9 Professor Mg Gale BA, MBC (Cal) DPH 1959 – 1964

Rectors of University of Medicine 1, Yangon

1 Professor Ba Than MB (Cal), FRCS (Edin), FACS, FICS 1.10.1964 - 30.8.1971
2 Dr. Pe Kyin MBBS (Rgn), FACS 1.9.1971 -31.8.1972
3 Dr. Tun Min MBBS (Rgn) 1.9.1972 - 9.5.1984
4 Professor Hla Myint MBBS (Rgn), DTM&H (Edin), FRCP (Edin) 26.6.1984 - 10.9.1987
5 Professor Tin Aung Swe MBBS (Rgn), FRCP (Edin), DTM&H (Edin) 16.11.1987 - 12.12.1988
6 Professor Mg Mg Sein MBBS (Rgn), ChM, FRCS (Edin), FRCS (Eng) 31.12.1988 - 6.6.1991
7 Professor Mya Oo MBBS (Rgn), FRCP (Edin), FRCP (Glas), FRCP (London)
, DrMedSc (Hon)(Ygn)
6.6.1991 - 25.9.1996
8 Professor Kyaw Myint Tun MBBS (Rgn), MRCP(UK),
FRCP (Edin), DrMedSc(Hon)(Ygn)
27.9.1996 - 16.9.1997
9 Professor Kyaw Myint MBBS (Rgn), MRCP (UK),
FRCP (Edin), FRCP (Glas), FCCP, DrMedSc (Hon)(Ygn)
17.9.1997 - 20.2.1998
10 Professor Myo Myint MBBS (Rgn), FRCS (Edin), MChOrth (Lpool),
DrMedSc (Hon)(Ygn)
21.2.1998 - 24.6.2007
11 Professor Aye Maung Han MBBS (Rgn), DCH, MMedSc (Paed),
MRCP (UK), FRCP (Edin), FRCPCH (London), DrMedSc (Paed)
6.7.2007 - 22.9.2009
12 Professor Pe Thet Khin MBBS (Ygn), MMedSc (Paed), MRCP (UK),
FRCPCH (London), DipMedEd
1-6-2009 - 30.3.2011
13 Professor Than Cho MBBS (Ygn), MMedSc (Ortho), FRCS (Edin)
, FRCS (Glasg), DrMedSc (Ortho), DipMedEd
18.5.2011 - 11.11.2013
14 Professor Thet Khaing Win M.B.B.S , M.Med.Sc(Int Med), MRCP(UK),
FRCP(Edin),Dip(Med Edu)
6.2.2014 - 20.4.2015
15 Professor Zaw Wai Soe M.B.B.S (Ygn),M.Med.Sc(Ortho),FRCS(Glasg),
20.5.2015 to date